Também conhecido como
Metanephrine and Normetanephrine
Nome formal
Urine Metanephrines, Total and Fractionated
Este artigo foi revisto pela última vez em
Este artigo foi modificado pela última vez em
14 de Janeiro de 2018.
At a Glance
Why Get Tested?
To help diagnose or rule out a pheochromocytoma or other neuroendocrine tumor
When To Get Tested?
When you have symptoms of increased catecholamine release, such as persistent or episodic high blood pressure, severe headaches, rapid heart rate, and sweating
Sample Required?
Test Preparation Needed?
Foods such as coffee (including decaf), tea, chocolate, vanilla, bananas, oranges and other citrus fruits should be avoided for several days prior to the test and during collection. There are also many medications that can potentially affect test results. Talk to your doctor about any prescriptions and over-the-counter drugs and supplements that you are taking. Wherever possible, those that are known to interfere should be discontinued prior to and during sample collection. Emotional and physical stresses and vigorous exercise should be minimized prior to and during test collection as they can increase catecholamine secretion.
What is being tested?
This test measures the amount of metanephrines that are excreted in the urine over a 24-hour period. Metanephrines are the inactive metabolites of the catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine. Catecholamines are a group of similar hormones produced in the nervous system and in the medulla (central portion) of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are small, triangular organs located on top of each kidney. The primary catecholamines are dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine. These hormones are released into the bloodstream in response to physical or emotional stress. They help transmit nerve impulses in the brain, increase glucose and fatty acid release for energy, dilate small air passages in the lungs called bronchioles, and dilate the pupils. Norepinephrine also constricts blood vessels, which increases blood pressure, and epinephrine increases heart rate and metabolism. After completing their actions, the catecholamines are metabolized to form inactive compounds. Dopamine becomes homovanillic acid (HVA), norepinephrine breaks down into normetanephrine and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), and epinephrine becomes metanephrine and VMA. Both the hormones and their metabolites are excreted in the urine.

Urine metanephrine testing measures the amount of both metanephrine and normetanephrine. These metabolites are usually present in the urine in small fluctuating amounts that increase appreciably during and shortly after the body is exposed to a stressor. Pheochromocytomas and other neuroendocrine tumors, however, can produce large amounts of catecholamines, resulting in greatly increased concentrations of the hormones and their metabolites in both the blood and urine. The catecholamines that a pheochromocytoma produces can cause persistent hypertension (high blood pressure) and/or bouts or episodes of severe hypertension. Other symptoms of catecholamine release include headaches, palpitations, sweating, nausea, anxiety, and tingling in the extremities.

About 90% of pheochromocytomas are located in the adrenal glands. While a few are cancerous, most are benign – they do not spread beyond their original location - although most do continue to grow. Left untreated, the symptoms may worsen as the tumor grows and, over a period of time, the hypertension that the pheochromocytoma causes may damage body organs, such as the kidneys and heart, and raise the risk of an affected patient having a stroke or heart attack.

The metanephrine test can be used to help detect the presence of pheochromocytomas. Although, according to the National Cancer Institute, only about 800 cases a year are diagnosed in the U.S., it is important to diagnose and treat these rare tumors because they cause a potentially curable form of hypertension. In most cases, the tumors can be surgically removed and/or treated to significantly reduce the amount of catecholamines being produced and to reduce or eliminate associated symptoms and complications.

How is the sample collected for testing?

For the 24-hour urine collection, all of your urine should be saved for a 24-hour period. It is important that the sample be refrigerated during this time period.

Is any test preparation needed to ensure the quality of the sample?

Foods such as coffee (including decaf), tea, chocolate, vanilla, bananas, oranges and other citrus fruits should be avoided for several days prior to the test and during collection. There are also many medications that can potentially affect test results. Talk to your doctor about any prescriptions and over-the-counter drugs and supplements that you are taking. Wherever possible, those that are known to interfere should be discontinued prior to and during sample collection. Emotional and physical stresses and vigorous exercise should be minimized prior to and during sample collection as they can increase catecholamine secretion.
Accordion Title
Common Questions
  • How is it used?
    Urine metanephrine testing is primarily used to help detect and rule out pheochromocytomas in symptomatic patients. It may also be ordered to help monitor the effectiveness of treatment when a pheochromocytoma is discovered and removed and to monitor for recurrence. Urine metanephrine testing may be ordered by itself or along with a plasma metanephrine test. Plasma and urine catecholamine testing may also be ordered, either along with urine metanephrines or as follow-up tests. Since catecholamine secretion tends to fluctuate over time, a 24-hour urine test for metanephrines or catecholamines may detect excess production that is missed with the blood test. It is up to the doctor to decide which test or test combinations will give him the most information. In many cases, urine and plasma metanephrines may be preferred as they are usually present in greater quantities than catecholamines in the urine and can persist in the blood even when catecholamine levels have returned to normal.

    Since these tests are affected by drugs, foods, and stresses, there will be a certain number of false positives. For this reason, metanephrine testing is not recommended as a screen for the general public. Doctors will frequently investigate a positive result by evaluating a patient’s stresses and intake, work to alter or minimize these influences, and then repeat the test to confirm the original findings.

    Occasionally, metanephrine testing may be ordered on an asymptomatic person if an adrenal or neuroendocrine tumor is detected during a scan that is done for another purpose or if the patient has a strong personal or family history of pheochromocytomas (as they may recur and there is a genetic link in some cases).

  • When is it ordered?
    Urine metanephrines are ordered when a doctor either suspects that a patient has a pheochromocytoma or wants to rule out the possibility. He may order it when a patient has persistent or recurring hypertension along with symptoms such as headaches, sweating, flushing, and rapid heart rate. It may also be ordered when a patient has hypertension that is not responding to treatment. Since the hormone production from a pheochromocytoma is not regulated by the body, patients who have hypertension due to a pheochromocytoma are frequently resistant to conventional therapies.

    Occasionally, the test may be ordered when an adrenal tumor is detected incidentally or when a patient has a family history of pheochromocytomas. It also may be used as a monitoring tool when a patient has been treated for a previous pheochromocytoma.

  • What does the test result mean?
    Because the metanephrine test is sensitive to many outside influences and pheochromocytomas are rare, a doctor may see more false positives with this test than true positives. If a symptomatic patient has large amounts of metanephrines in his urine, further investigation is indicated. If there are no interfering substances or stresses identified, then there is a good possibility that he may have a pheochromocytoma. The doctor may order plasma metanephrine and/or urine or plasma catecholamine testing to help confirm the initial findings. If these are also elevated, then imaging tests such as an MRI may be ordered to help find the tumor(s).

    Serious illnesses and stresses can cause moderate to large temporary increases in metanephrine levels. Doctors must evaluate the patient as a whole - his physical condition, emotional state, medications, and diet. When interfering substances and/or conditions are found and resolved, the doctor will frequently re-test the patient to determine whether the metanephrines are still elevated. If they are, then he may order imaging scans; if they are not, then it is unlikely that the patient has a pheochromocytoma.

    If levels are elevated in a patient who has had a previous pheochromocytoma, it is likely that either treatment was not fully effective or that the tumor is recurring.

    The negative predictive value of the test is relatively good. This means that if metanephrine concentrations are normal, then it is unlikely that apatient has a pheochromocytoma.

  • Is there anything else I should know?
    While metanephrine testing can help detect and diagnose pheochromocytomas, it cannot tell the doctor how big the tumor is, where it is, how many tumors are present, or whether or not the tumor(s) are benign – although most are. Even small tumors can produce large amounts of catecholamines.

    It is very important to talk to your doctor before discontinuing any prescribed medications. He will work with you to identify interfering substances and drug treatments to determine which of them can be safely interrupted and which must be continued for your well-being. Some of the substances that can interfere with metanephrine testing include: acetaminophen, aminophylline, amphetamines, appetite suppressants, coffee, tea, and other forms of caffeine, chloral hydrate, clonidine, dexamethasone, diuretics, epinephrine, ethanol (alcohol), insulin, imipramine, lithium, methyldopa (Aldomet), MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitors, nicotine, nitroglycerine, nose drops, propafenone (Rythmol), reserpine, salicylates, theophylline, tetracycline, tricyclic antidepressants, and vasodilators. The effects of these drugs on metanephrine testing will be different from patient to patient and are often not predictable.

  • Can I have tumors in both of my adrenal glands?
    Yes. Usually a single adrenal tumor will arise in one gland or the other, but multiple tumors can form. This is more likely in patients with a strong family history of pheochromocytomas.
  • If I avoid all of the interfering substances mentioned, could I prevent a pheochromocytoma?
    No. Drugs and some dietary components may interfere with accurate test results, but they do not cause or exacerbate the tumor itself.
  • Why haven't I heard about pheochromocytomas?
    Because they are rare. They are important to diagnose, however, because they are a potentially curable cause of hypertension (which is usually controllable but not curable).
  • Will my doctor ever test for HVA or VMA?
    Yes, occasionally, but in most cases metanephrine and catecholamine testing give your doctor the information he needs. HVA and VMA may be more useful in the diagnosis of other neuroendocrine tumors. Most pheochromocytomas do not produce dopamine or HVA.
  • Is it really necessary to collect urine for 24 hours?
    Yes, for accurate test results it is essential that all of the urine be collected. Because the catecholamines are released at varying times, the one sample not included might be the one with the most metanephrines in it.
View Sources
Sources Used in Current Review
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference. 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 987-990.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 382-383.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 724-731.

Pacak, K. et. al. (2007 March 21). Pheochromocytoma: Recommendations for Clinical Practice from the First International Symposium. Medscape from Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007;3(2):92-102. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/553428 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 9/29/08.

Sweeney, A. et. al. (2007 September 11, Updated). Pheochromocytoma. EMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.emedicine.com/med/TOPIC1816.HTM through http://www.emedicine.com. Accessed on 9/29/08.

Vilar, L. (2008 June 17). Adrenal Incidentalomas: Diagnostic Evaluation and Long-Term Follow-up. Medscape from Endocr Pract. 2008;14(3):269-278 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/574415 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 9/29/08.

(2007 December). Pheochromocytoma. UrologyHealth.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://urologyhealth.org/adult/index.cfm?cat=02&topic=114 through http://urologyhealth.org. Accessed on 9/29/08.

Grossman, A. (2007 November Reviewed). Pheochromocytoma. Merck Manual for Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/print/sec12/ch153/ch153h.html through http://www.merck.com. Accessed on 9/29/08.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Sawka, A., et. al. (2003 February). A Comparison of Biochemical Tests for Pheochromocytoma: Measurement of Fractionated Plasma Metanephrines Compared with the Combination of 24-Hour Urinary Metanephrines and Catecholamines. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 88, No. 2 553-558 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/88/2/553 through http://jcem.endojournals.org.

Brose, M. Updated (2004 August 3, Updated). Pheochromocytoma. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000340.htm.

(© 2005). Metanephrines, Plasma. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_a76b.jsp#2461156.

(© 2005). Metanephrines, Urine. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_a77b.jsp#1141889.

(© 1995-2005). Pheochromocytoma. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 2. Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders, Chapter 9. Adrenal Disorders [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section2/chapter9/9d.jsp through http://www.merck.com.

Vogin, G. Reviewed (2002). Plasma Metanephrines Best to Diagnose Pheochromocytoma. Medscape Medical News [On-line news article]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/430266?src=search through http://www.medscape.com.

Schwartz, G. and Sheps, S. (2004 May 06). Hypertension. MedScape Today from ACP Medicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/474790?src=search through http://www.medscape.com.

(1998 May 27, Updated). Adrenal Medullary Hormones. Colorado State University, Hypertexts for Biological Sciences [On-line hypertextbook]. Available online at http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/adrenal/medhormones.html through http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu.